Rad9 is required for the MEC1/TEL1-dependent activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA damage checkpoint pathways mediated by Rad53 and Chk1. DNA damage induces Rad9 phosphorylation, and Rad53 specifically associates with phosphorylated Rad9. Cells have evolved multiple strategies for tolerating genomic damage. The most important of these are numerous repair systems that remove or bypass potentially mutagenic DNA lesions. Another cellular strategy is to delay cell-cycle transitions at multiple points. The genetic control of these delays, termed `checkpoints', was first established in budding yeast where it was shown that the RAD9 gene functions in G2/M arrest after irradiation with X-rays. Subsequently, it has become clear that Rad9 also functions at the G1/S, intra-S and mid-anaphase checkpoints. Defects in checkpoint regulation can lead to genome instability and, in higher eukaryotes, neoplastic transformation. Rad9 also controls the transcriptional induction of a DNA damage regulon (DDR). Rad9 may also have a pro-apoptotic function. This is suggested in that Rad9 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpRad9) contains a group of amino acids with similarity to the Bcl-2 homology 3 death domain, which is required for SpRad9 interaction with human Bcl-2 and apoptosis induction in human cells. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in S. pombe inhibits cell growth independently of rad9, but enhances resistance of rad9-null cells to methyl methanesulfonate, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. Rad9 conveys the checkpoint signal by activating Rad53p and Chk1p; is hyperphosphorylated by Mec1p and Tel1p; and is a potential Cdc28p substrate. Mature yeast Rad9 is reported to have an apparent molecular weight of ~148kDa. The human homolog is reported at 48.5 kDa.
This affinity purified antibody was prepared from whole rabbit serum produced by repeated immunizations with a synthetic peptide corresponding to phosphorylated form of aa 1125-1139 of 1309 of yeast Rad9 protein conjugated to KLH.